are ganglion cysts?
Ganglion cysts are very common lumps within the hand and wrist that occur
adjacent to joints or tendons. The most common locations are the top of the wrist (see Figure 1), the palm side of
the wrist, the base of the finger on the palm side, and the top of the end joint of the finger (see Figure 2). The ganglion
cyst often resembles a water balloon on a stalk (see Figure 3), and is filled with clear fluid or gel. The cause of these
cysts is unknown although they may form in the presence of joint or tendon irritation or mechanical changes. They occur in
patients of all ages.
These cysts may change in size or even disappear
completely, and they may or may not be painful. These cysts are not cancerous and will not spread to other areas.
How are ganglion
The diagnosis is usually based on the location of the lump and
its appearance. They are usually oval or round and may be soft or very firm. Cysts at the base of the finger on the palm
side are typically very firm, pea sized nodules that are tender to applied pressure, such as when gripping. Light will often
pass through these lumps, (trans-illumination) and this can assist in the diagnosis. Your physician may request x rays in
order to investigate problems in adjacent joints. Cysts at the end joint of the finger frequently have an arthritic
bone spur associated with them.
are the treatment options for ganglion cysts?
often be non-surgical. In many cases, these cysts can simply be observed, especially if they are painless, as they frequently
disappear spontaneously. If the cyst becomes painful, limits activity, or is otherwise unacceptable, several treatment options
are available. The use of splints and anti-inflammatory medication can be prescribed in order to decrease pain associated
with activities. An aspiration can be performed to remove the fluid from the cyst and decompress it. This requires placing
a needle into the cyst, which can be performed in most office settings. Aspiration is a very simple procedure, but recurrence
of the cyst is common. If non-surgical options fail to provide relief or if the cyst recurs, surgical alternatives are available.
Surgery involves removing the cyst along with a portion of the joint capsule or tendon sheath (see Figure 3). In the case
of wrist ganglion cysts, both traditional open and arthroscopic techniques usually yield good results. Surgical treatment
is generally successful although cysts may recur. Your surgeon will discuss the best treatment options for you.
Figure 1: Ganglion top side (dorsum) wrist
Figure 2: Ganglion end joint of finger (mucous cyst)
Figure 3: Cross-section of wrist showing stalk (or root)
© 2006 American Society for
Surgery of the Hand